BIM Implementation in the construction industry
We should start with the most important question – how effective is BIM Implementation in the construction industry?
BIM presents enormous opportunities and challenges. BIM use and effective implementation remain a major issue for the construction industry. As BIM evolves and construction processes become automated provision to incorporate 3D, 4D time, 5D cost modeling, and 6D facilities management services become a part of the BIM integrated delivery approach.
A key finding was the importance of coordinated government support as a critical driver for BIM implementation. Others found to be the development of BIM standards, legal protocols to tackle liability issues, BIM certification, education, and training for BIM implementation.
BIM delivers benefits throughout the building project lifecycle starting from design decisions, efficient construction, & maintaining building portfolios effectively. BIM methodology supports projects throughout the lifecycle of design and construction up to the operation of the building.
BIM Implementation Trends
Concepts of BIM can be traced back to the early ’60s & solid modeling emerged in the ’70s and ’80s. The development of ArchiCAD software in 1982 is viewed by many as the real beginning of BIM and the development of Revit software in 2000 saw a real shift towards effective BIM implementation.
BIM technology has been over two decades however BIM implementation has been relatively slow in the construction industry.
Research has revealed that BIM implementation has gained considerable momentum over the past few years.
What is Building Information Modeling (BIM)?
ISO 19650 defines BIM as
“use of a shared digital representation of a built asset to facilitate design, construction and operation processes to form a reliable basis for the decision”
Building Information Modeling-Definition
Working Process – Not a software alone or physical item or object – Entire Project Lifecycle
Management – Means of collating, communicating, and managing information – Collaborative Exchange of Digital Info
Virtual Asset – Graphical Models, Asset Data, Documentation – Information Model
Building Information Modeling-Stakeholders
Building Information applies to all different individuals and stakeholders in a project life cycle. Everyone has a role to play in BIM whether it is procurement-design-manufacture-construction-operation-maintenance-decommissioning.
5 fundamentals to know about BIM Implementation
1. Getting Started:
We question ourselves to determine the objectives and reasons for BIM Implementation
- What are our desired BIM outcomes?
- What does a successful BIM implementation look like?
- Where/how do we want to use BIM?
Define BIM Uses
BIM uses are methods to step in the Design-Construct-Operate workflow for a building lifecycle so it is important to define BIM uses in organizations & projects to understand the value and purpose of BIM deliverables.
Once defined ensure BIM standards, processes and competencies address BIM uses.
- Design Reviews
- Quantities/Cost Estimation
2. Document your BIM Process
BIM Execution Plan (BEP) is a document used as a tool to provide a standardized workflow and guidance for strategic BIM implementation for BIM projects.
Initiation > Planning > Execution > Control > Closure
BEP includes all project stakeholders, project team, and company BIM implementation plan or manual
Plan your Project
- Work Breakdown Structure: Phases & Tasks
- Resources: Project Team & Consultants, Software – licensing & version
- Timeline: Project Programme – Gantt Chart,
- Risk involved & mitigation
Plan your Information
- Basic Information: Project Details, Type, Site Info
- Project Phases & Milestones: Info delivery Cycle & States
- Project/Document Management System: Operation, processes, data & technology using Common Data Environment including Autodesk Construction Cloud, User Guidelines, Template & Standards, and Rules & Best Practices.
Model & Drawings
- Protocol & conventions: Drawing Protocols, Naming Standards, Drawing Audits, Compact & Purge, Level of Detail, File Storage & Backups
Read CAD drafting services / Architectural drafting services / BIM Services
3. Check BIM Maturity
Level 0 (CAD) – Level 1 (2D, 3D) – Level 2 (4D, 5D) – Level 3 (6D)
4. Cultivate BIM Champions
BIM Roles – Technician/Modeler, Engineer, Coordinator, Manager, Digital Lead
BIM Competency – Individual combined knowledge, skill, experience, attitude & personal traits, process optimization, recruit competent resources, get expert advice & recommendations
5. BIM is a Commitment
Commit but, phase your implementation
You need to know your destination (B); you need to look at BIM maturity (A) but getting from point A to B isn’t always a straight line, a lot of times ups & downs which is not great for productivity and lots of back & forth. So we need to look at bim uses and define desired outcomes, break it down, figure out & do it right as per competencies we move to next, and so on.
Why do we want to implement BIM?
- Reduce Waste
We must reduce waste and improve processes to implement BIM in the construction industry.
Refer to Construction 2025 policy paper – it sets out a vision and plans for long-term strategic action with an aim to lower costs by 33% & faster delivery by 50% for projects.
Can BIM Impact Project Delivery?
BIM can impact various challenges in building construction
- Economics – Cost of Design, Construction, Operations
- Performance – Environmental Cost, Energy Use, Retrofit
- Quality – Compliance with Standards, Safety
- Procurement – Administration, Delays, Variations, Disputes
BIM has to be managed well for successful implementation.
Building Information Modeling Fundamentals
BIM integrates the information (geometric, parametric) into the database using a medium i.e. software to visualize 3D models and extract the information for estimates, RFI, Facility Management, schedules, and submittals on daily basis.
BIM promotes efficiency & high productivity
BIM Implementation for Key Stakeholders:
Specific disciplines have their own way of implementing BIM within organizations.
- Architect: Design & Presentation, Construction Documentation
- Engineer: Civil & Structural, MEP services, Performance Analysis
- Quantity Surveyors: Material Take-offs, Cost Analysis
- Project Manager: Phasing & Planning, Reporting
- Contractors: Clash Detection, Work Scheduling, Manufacture/Prototyping
- Clients: Brief Analysis, Facility Management
BIM Implementation in Construction Lifecycle:
BIM Implementation benefits construction projects.
BIM Hierarchy Model
There are several tiers of BIM Implementation
Tier 3 BIM Beginners:
- Use of Tools/Technology without any BIM processes
- Consultant design with 3D parametric tools
- Model-based design for consultant’s own use
- Use for visualization, basic coordination, clashes, etc.
Tier 2 BIM Advanced:
- Use of relevant tools
- Set up basic CDE and process without basing on established standards
- Use in collaboration
- Setup internal workflow and processes protocol
- Consultant design for the use of BIM lifecycle
Tier 1 BIM Comprehensive Deployment:
- Use of established Standards & specification such as BS1192, BS8536, BS8541, PAS1192-2 to PAS1192-5,etc. (ISO 19650)
- Production of documentation
You need to have the right process and right standards to implement BIM for better benefits.
Read: cad design & drafting services
Major Parts of BIM Implementation:
BIM implementation mainly of two parts namely
Technology – Input information in 3D model using Technology
Process – collaboration & extracting information using right process.
Change of Method
1. We use various software AutoCAD for 2D drawing to Revit, ArchiCAD, and Bentley for 3D model visualization throughout our construction process.
2. 3D visualization of the existing condition using Laser Scan to BIM Services
Using laser scanning we capture existing assets of building routes in a point cloud format and import them into BIM software to produce a 3D design model. Further, overlay each other to verify 3D visualization of existing conditions.
3. 2D discrepancies check & RFIs to 3D visualization to check 3D Clash Detection / Design Review Coordination
4. Microsoft or Primavera to check work progress in 2D to 4D construction simulation using the 3D model for delay monitoring
5. Take-off, Bill of Quantity, etc. spreadsheet in 2D to Take-off, progress payment, and validation of VO’s IN 5D.
Other Aspects are 6D Sustainability & 7D Facility Management Applications
6. Earlier we had a shelf for filing i.e. safekeeping of information and now a common data environment (CDE) for document management & collaboration platform with all stakeholders.
LOD (Level of Development)
BIM Level of Detail (USA-AIA E202-2008)
The Level of Development (Accuracy) is not the same as the Level of Detail (how much we choose to model)
LOD is subjective!! Make every effort to be as specific as possible about expectations and the use of a model.
Now worldwide people are moving away from LOD. They are using the new definition LOIN (Level of Information Need)
BIM is an information development process
We need to make sure the information input in the model is correct so that we can reap the benefit of BIM and improve the process of construction
Overlapping between construction process and BIM Process
Quantifying Financial Benefits of BIM
As much as 30% of the construction cost is wasted in the field due to without BIM:
Coordinated errors i.e. RFI due to conflicts during construction, Change Order 2%-5%
Wasted Material i.e. Quantity Take-Off using manual method 5%-8%
Labor inefficiencies i.e. time taken for Measurement, Rework, resolve issues between MEP trades 15%-20%
And other problems in the current construction (traditional) approach
International trends show a marked increase in BIM implementation in key markets in the construction industry and are expected to accelerate sharply over the next few years. This is driven by government mandate, clients and contractors have realized the benefits obtained from this technology. It is evident that the sooner one invests in BIM capabilities the better it positions itself and takes advantage of various BIM initiatives and capabilities that will continue to evolve.
What are the common objectives (goals) of BIM Implementation?
Based on the project case study BIM is used mostly in
o 3D Coordination/Clash Detection
o 5D Quantity Take Off, Cost Calculation & Control
o Visualisation of 3D Model
o 4D Construction progress monitoring
o Facility Management
What common issues are addressed by BIM Implementation?
o Conflict & Complexity of Design
o Inadequate design information
o Improper site investigation
o Poor communications
o Unrealistic time targets